NEOLITHIC OCCUPATIONS ON THE SOUTHERN SLOPE OF THE MÜLLER MOUNTAINS: NANGA BALANG AND MUARA JOLOI (OKUPASI NEOLITIK DI LERENG SELATAN PEGUNUNGAN MÜLLER: NANGA BALANG DAN MUARA JOLOI)

Vida Pervaya Rusianti Kusmartono, Ulce Oktrivia

Abstract

 A neolithic occupation in Kalimantan is marked by an open space near the water source and biodiversity which are potential for cultivation. Other characteristics of a neolithic occupation are the presence of archaeological items that suggest a sedentary lifestyle such as pottery, stone adzes, bark-cloth-beaters, and an indication of the arrival of the Austronesia-language-speaking people. Of the sites examined so far, there are two sites indicating open occupations in the southern slope of the Müller Mountains from around 3000-2000 years ago, the Nanga Balang and Muolo Joloi. Both sites are practically located in the heart of Kalimantan in the dense interior of the tropical rainforest. This research discusses the characteristic of Neolithic culture in Nanga Balang and MuaraJoloi to understand their variabilities. The research method used here is descriptive-comparative approach. The result of this research provides information on human strategies in interacting with the natural environment of the tropical rainforest.


Keywords: Kalimantan, tropical rainforests, Neolithic occupation, radiocarbon dating, occupation characteristic, human survival.

Okupasi neolitik di Kalimantan ditandai oleh ruang terbuka dekat sumber air dan keanekaragaman hayati yang potensial untuk perladangan. Karakteristik lain dari okupasi neolitik adalah keberadaan benda-benda arkeologi yang menunjukkan gaya hidup menetap seperti tembikar, adu batu, pemukul kulit kayu, dan indikasi kedatangan orang-orang berbahasa Austronesia. Dari situs yang diteliti sejauh ini, ada dua situs yang menunjukkan okupasi terbuka di lereng selatan Pegunungan Müller dari sekitar 3000-2000 tahun yang lalu, Nanga Balang dan Muara Joloi. Kedua lokasi tersebut praktis terletak di jantung Kalimantan di pedalaman hutan hujan tropis yang lebat. Penelitian ini membahas karakteristik budaya neolitik di Nanga Balang dan Muara Joloi untuk memahami variasinya. Metode penelitian yang digunakan di sini adalah pendekatan deskriptif-komparatif. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi tentang strategi manusia dalam berinteraksi dengan lingkungan alam hutan hujan tropis pada masa lalu.


Kata kunci: Kalimantan, hutan hujan tropis, okupasi neolitik, pertanggalan radiokarbon, karakteristik okupasi, kelangsungan hidup manusia

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